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NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology

by PW Gulf
September 28, 2023

Class 12 Biology is a crucial subject for students aspiring to pursue a career in medicine. The National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) is the gateway to medical colleges in India, and achieving a strong grasp of biology is essential for success in this highly competitive exam. When it comes to studying Class 12 Biology, NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) books hold a special place. In this article, we will delve into the significance of NCERT books for Class 12 Biology in NEET preparation.

CBSE NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology PDF - Free Download

The inception of the National Council of Educational Research (NCERT) dates back to 1961 when it was established with the aim of centralizing the education system and producing textbooks aligned with the Indian school curriculum. Students enrolled in schools affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) who are gearing up for their 12th-grade Biology Board examination often turn to the NCERT Class 12 Biology books to enhance their preparation.

The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF resources provide students with a comprehensive understanding of each chapter, presenting a clear overview of key ideas and fundamental concepts. Additionally, when practicing sample question papers, students can also make use of the Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions to gain insight into the types of questions that may be included in the examination.

NCERT Books For Class 12 Biology; Free PDF Download

Class 12 Biology NCERT books encompass a wide array of subjects, including genetics, ecology, human physiology, and biotechnology. The significant benefit is that these books are readily available for download in PDF format, ensuring accessibility for everyone. You can access the Class 12 Biology NCERT books in both English and Hindi languages. Find the download link for the Class 12 Biology NCERT books in the table provided below.

NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology PDF Free Download

CBSE Class 12 Biology: Benefits of Choosing Biology.

Undoubtedly, Biology stands as the paramount subject in the 11th and 12th grades for aspiring medical students. Biology serves as a branch of science that imparts knowledge about both ourselves and the natural world. Consequently, it encompasses a vast spectrum of disciplines, finding applications in various domains including healthcare, genetics, biotechnology, and various industrial sectors. It provides the opportunity to delve deeper into the understanding of a multitude of living organisms, spanning from humans and animals to plants, while elucidating their interconnectedness. Moreover, Biology enlightens students about the intricate relationships between living entities and their environments, demonstrating how such interactions can be mutually advantageous. Furthermore, it plays a pivotal role in resolving environmental issues without causing harm. Additionally, Biology assists in addressing challenges pertaining to natural resources, encompassing plant and wildlife conservation.

CBSE Class 12 Biology: Exam pattern, Unit Wise Weightage:

  • The question paper will comprise 33 questions, divided into several sections, and all questions are compulsory. The question paper will consist of four sections, denoted as Section A, Section B, Section C, and Section D.

  • Section A will encompass 14 one-mark questions along with two case-based questions. Section B will comprise nine questions, each carrying two marks. Section C will include five questions, each with a three-mark value. Lastly, Section D will contain three questions, each contributing five marks.

  • While there won't be an overall choice provided for the questions, some questions may offer internal choices.

  • The examination's assessment criteria are as follows: 50 percent of the marks are allotted for demonstrating knowledge and understanding, 30 percent are based on the application of knowledge and concepts, and the remaining 20 percent are allocated for analytical, evaluative, and creative skills.

  • The types of questions in the examination encompass Short Answer (SA), Long Answer Type I (LA-I), Long Answer Type II (LA-II), Source-based, Case-based, Passage-based, and Integrated assessment questions, as well as Very Short Answer (VSA) questions, including Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Assertion-Reasoning type questions.

Unit No.








Reproduction in





Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants



Human Reproduction



Reproductive Health


Genetics and Evolution


Principles of

  Inheritance and Variation




Molecular Basis of Inheritance






Biology and Human



Human Health and





Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production



Microbes in Human Welfare




Biotechnology –

  Principles and Processes




Biotechnology and its Applications


Ecology and Environment


Organisms and








Biodiversity and Conservation



Environmental Issues




NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF Free Download

In the revised NCERT Biology Class 12 syllabus, students encounter the fascinating study of various life processes, gaining insights into how each organism thrives and adjusts to its surroundings.

Prominent biological themes explored in the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF encompass topics such as the reproductive mechanisms in flowering plants, genetics, and the molecular underpinnings of inheritance within living organisms.

This curriculum content not only equips students for their upcoming board examinations but also provides them with a competitive advantage in terms of academic performance. Particularly, for those aspiring to pursue careers in the medical or pharmaceutical fields, this NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF proves to be an invaluable resource.

Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

Within the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF, the first chapter delves into the intricacies of reproduction in living organisms. Reproduction, a fundamental biological process encompassing both internal and external reproductive organs, is explored. This process plays a pivotal role in ensuring the continuity of various species, making it a cornerstone of life systems within our bodies.

Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF highlights the significance of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Angiosperms, or flowering plants, engage in sexual reproduction through the utilization of male and female gametes produced by the flower's various parts. To comprehend this intricate process, students must delve into the anatomy of flowers, including the sepals, calyx, pedicel, stamen (male reproductive part), and petals, as well as the pistil (female reproductive part) consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.

Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

Human reproduction is a highly complex process involving pre-fertilization, internal fertilization, and post-fertilization stages. The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF comprehensively covers all aspects of human reproduction, including embryogenesis, gamete formation, and the mitotic division of the zygote post-fertilization. Additionally, the chapter explores related topics such as puberty onset, sexual differentiation, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Reproductive health, encompassing mental, social, and physical well-being in all reproductive processes, is a critical chapter in the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF. The chapter emphasizes the importance of family planning policies and reproductive health initiatives in India. A thorough understanding of this chapter is essential to building a healthy society and achieving population control objectives.

Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Within this chapter of the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF, the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next is explored. The chapter elucidates why family members often share similarities, how genes are inherited from parents, and how genetic material is passed down during sexual reproduction. Gregor Johann Mendel's pioneering work on traits' inheritance patterns and ratios, observed through experiments on pea plants, is also detailed in this chapter.

Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Genes are the foundation of genetic inheritance in living organisms, shaping traits that lead to family resemblances and sibling similarities. The NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF delves into how genes are located within chromosomes, with chromosomes comprising DNA and proteins. DNA, the molecule at the core of genetics, inheritance, and variation, is explored in detail, with its double-helical structure, nucleotide composition, and role as the building blocks of genetic information.

Chapter 7: Evolution

The concept of evolution, elucidating how species undergo significant changes in response to their environment, is detailed in this chapter of the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF. Natural selection, the driving force behind evolution, relies on genetic variations and observed phenotypic differences. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection is central to this chapter's understanding, highlighting its significance for Class 12 students.

Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease

The definition of health, evolving over time, is explored within this chapter of the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF. The chapter emphasizes holistic well-being, encompassing mental, social, and physical aspects, beyond mere absence of disease. Topics such as balanced diets, exercise regimens, sanitation, and immunity are discussed, with diseases categorized into infectious and non-infectious types.

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Food production, integral to human sustenance, is the focus of this chapter within the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF. Food, comprising essential nutrients like carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, and minerals, is essential for bodily function. The chapter covers food production processes, including cultivation, harvesting, packaging, transportation, and consumption. Modern techniques for improving food quality through animal and plant breeding are also explored.

Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, viruses, prions, and viroids, significantly impact human life and welfare. This chapter in the 12th Biology NCERT PDF highlights how some microbes, like E.coli and Lactobacillus, are beneficial, residing in the human body and aiding in processes like milk curdling. These microscopic entities, typically visible only under a microscope, play vital roles in various aspects of human welfare.

Chapter 11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Biotechnology, a multidisciplinary field combining biology and emerging technologies, is the focus of this chapter. The NCERT 12th Biology book PDF explains how biotechnology utilizes molecular and cellular processes to address critical challenges and enhance life on Earth. Biotechnology's practical applications, such as in food production, are explored, emphasizing its role in solving complex global problems.

Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology, marked by cutting-edge research and development across molecular biology, chemistry, and biochemistry, holds the potential to revolutionize medicine, genetics, and more. This chapter in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF delves into the ways genetics can combat fatal diseases and enhance plant varieties through vector usage. It underscores biotechnology's interdisciplinary approach, combining elements of biochemistry, biology, and genetics to address complex global issues.

Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

Ecology, the study of relationships among diverse living organisms and their environment, forms the foundation of this chapter. The NCERT books class 12 Biology emphasize the intricate interplay between plants and animals, population dynamics, and the prevalence of microscopic bacteria. Ecology knowledge is crucial for understanding environmental management and resource conservation.

Chapter 14: Ecosystems

Ecosystems, composed of various species of animals, plants, and microbial organisms, are explored in this chapter. The NCERT Biology class 12 PDF delves into ecosystems' complex dynamics, encompassing both abiotic and biotic components such as temperature's influence on these environments.

Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

The second-to-last chapter in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF discusses biodiversity, encompassing the multitude of species coexisting on Earth. This includes all living organisms, from plants and animals to humans and bacteria. With more than 8.7 million species on Earth, only a fraction has been studied, underlining the importance of biodiversity conservation in the face of human-induced threats.

Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

The final chapter in the NCERT Biology class 12 PDF underscores environmental issues, highlighting their immense risk to ecosystems and keystone species. The burgeoning global population and increased land exploitation make the study of these issues essential for humanity's survival and resource management.

Why Consult the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF for Your Results

Understanding the significance of referring to the NCERT class 12 Biology PDF download is crucial before delving into your studies. The NCERT books offer a multitude of advantages, including:

Clear and Precise Presentation: Many textbooks lack the clarity and precision required for effective learning. However, NCERT science books stand out in this regard. Authored by distinguished science writers after thorough research, these books are exceptionally reliable. Students can rest assured that studying from NCERT books will lead to excellent marks.

Comprehensive Explanation of Fundamental Concepts: The NCERT biology books excel in providing a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental ideas and concepts within the biology syllabus. It's noteworthy that a significant portion of questions in previous years' board exams directly aligns with the content covered in NCERT books.

Enhanced Problem-Solving Opportunities: Every NCERT book, regardless of the subject, includes a section with crucial questions at the end of each chapter. These questions frequently appear in the upcoming year's board exams. They are designed to offer practice opportunities and prepare students to tackle questions of varying difficulty levels effectively.

Improved Communication Skills: NCERT books are known for their use of simple and straightforward language. This feature not only aids students' understanding of key concepts but also contributes to enhancing their communication skills.

Interactive Charts and Figures: CBSE-prescribed NCERT books feature a plethora of vibrant illustrations, engaging tables, and informative charts. These visual aids simplify the learning process and make it more enjoyable. The layout of NCERT books is designed for clarity and simplicity, fostering interactive learning.

These benefits underscore the importance of studying from NCERT books. They not only facilitate thorough preparation but also instill confidence in students, ensuring their success in examinations.

Tips to excel CBSE Class 12 Biology:

  • Taking notes during Biology classes is highly beneficial for students, aiding in term recall and last-minute preparation.

  • Diagrams play a crucial role in simplifying complex theoretical solutions, enhancing understanding.

  • Genetics and Biotechnology chapters should be studied together as they are interrelated.

  • Focus on preparing large-scope chapters (e.g., reproduction, environment, human wellbeing) first.

  • Active participation in class and discussions with peers can clarify challenging topics.

  • Review NCERT material at least three times before exams for better retention.

  • Use mnemonic techniques to remember lengthy biological names effectively.

  • Paying attention in lab classes is essential, as practical exams contribute significantly to the final score.

NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology FAQs

Q1: Why choose NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF for study?

Ans: NCERT books offer clear content, reliable information, and a comprehensive curriculum.

Q2: Which are key chapters for CBSE Class 12 Biology exam?

Ans: Crucial chapters include "Reproduction in Organisms," "Human Reproduction," and "Genetics."

Q3: How many Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions can be found on Vedantu?

Ans: Vedantu provides solutions for all 16 chapters of the CBSE Biology syllabus.

Q4: How are units structured in the NCERT Biology Class 12 PDF?

Ans: Units are divided into reproduction, genetics, biology and human welfare, biotechnology, and ecology.

Q5: What are important topics in Unit 4 of CBSE Class 12 Biology?

Ans: Unit 4 covers genetic engineering, DNA fingerprinting, genomics, and biotechnology applications.

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